MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

The word music is basically originated by the word “Mousiki” which is the word of the Greek language.”Mousiki” basically means the science of composing single or many melodies.  According to the Greek theory the Arabs give it the name “Ilm Al-Musiqa” to distinguish it from Arabian practical theory ‘Ilm Al-Ghinaa’. 

Al-Farabi which was a great mathematician he designed many musical instruments by eradicating the mistakes repeated by Greeks.
Of his time he describes a musical instrument called Al-Tunboor. The instrument which in Persian is called as “Dasateen” It gave a “pre-Islamic scale. It was developed by dividing a string into forty equal parts which was a quarter –tone scale.
A big drum is called as At-Tabl. Tabl is also identical to At-Tamboor. It based upon the military and processional music. At the time of the Crusades the western army adopted it in their military bands. Before adoption of it the military army only used horns and trumpets.
The previous instruments, as well as there are many others instruments whose origins and Arabic names are not recognized. Practically speaking all the entire drum family was popularized through the Arabic medium and it also got fame in the west. For example Kittledrum, Naker and the timbale
The Naker which is originally called as Naqqara and Kittledrum both have a dual hemispheric body played with wooden drumsticks. It was one of the famous instruments of the Abbasid era when Baghdad became the capital of the Muslim World.


Dirbakka, Dunbug and Tabla are various kinds of a drum. Tabla is originated from Arabian language. While Dunbug is a Persian word used by Iraq and Persian Gulf countries. The word Dirbakka commonly used in Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine.
The Tabla is about 15 inches long in length. It is being played with the style by keeping it loose on either legs or while being balanced by a string over the left shoulder or carried under the left arm. It is beaten with both hands. Different sounds are produced when beaten near the edge and near the middle side. The Iraqi Tabla or Dunbug is being used only in Iraq. Nowadays the Tabla or Dunbug which is used is about only 3 inches in diameter. It is only used in the Country or gypsy style of music.
The Arabian Qanoon is worth mentioning here among the stringed instruments of Arab, which is also known as the Euorpean Kanon, Canon and Canale at the same time. Al-Qanoon is a trapezoidal instrument. It has a range of three octaves .It is played by plucking on the tip with plectrum and index fingers of each hand. The total number of strings always varies between 64 and 82. There are various theories concerned to the origin of the word Qanoon. During the Abbasid era in the 10th century the use of word Qanoon has being recorded mostly.
Music is the essence of soul that evokes perceptions, shapes behavior and stimulates responses.